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This depends on the quality of the raw water, and can subjected to any or a combination of the processes described below:
(i) Chemical Coagulation, Flocculation and Setting: Chemical coagulants used mainly are aluminum slats like Aluminum Sulphate (alum). After coagulation and flocculation, it may be necessary to neutralize the carbonic acidity or other form of acidity in the water by the use of suitable base like the hydroxide of sodium or calcium. This process removes micro- pollutants of particulate nature.

(ii) Softening of Hard Water or Hardness Removal: Hardness does not affect the sanitary quality of the water but is of importance in the domestic use of water, particularly for laundry and boiling purposes. Calcium and magnesium salts, the principal mineral.

(iii) Ozone: Ozonation is a very attractive method of disinfecting water. It is also very effective in the removal of tastes, odour (it has a bleaching effect) from the water. The ozone has to be generated as needed by the passing thoroughly filtered and dried air through tubes or between plants where high voltage electric discharge occurs, changing part of the oxygen or of the air to ozone (02 to 03).

1. Ultraviolet Light: The water to be sterilized must be clear and the lamps must be kept clean at all times. This treatment is made compulsory by NAFDAC and in combination with chlorination in order to achieve a high level of purity. It should be properly encased (not exposed as it is dangerous to the body and installed just before the filling point.
(d) Reverse Osmosis: uses several filters called membrane which eliminate bacterias,sediment>bad taste and odour

Portable water must be free from chemical substances and micro-organisms in amounts that could be hazardous to health. It must be organoleptically acceptable and aesthetically attractive. It is expected to meet the World Health organization (WHO) standards which are also the standards adopted by NAFDAC for portable drinking water (See Appendix 1 attached)


(vi) Personnel and Welfare: The key officers are the production and the quality control managers, who must have a sound knowledge in Food Science and Food Processing, Educational Qualification in relevant fields of science like Chemistry, Microbiology, Food Science, etc is compulsory. The workers must be properly kitted with overalls, head gear, hand gloves, mouth and nose guards, etc. they must also be medically certified fit to handle food meant for public consumption (Food Handlers Tests).

(vii) Equipment: Water holding tanks in the plant at different stages should be suitable materials, e.g. stainless steel or plastic(PVC). All automatic filling and sealing equipment is preferred to manual packaging in order to avoid human contamination of the processed water. Taps should be of stainless steel. Wash-hand basins should be of stainless steel. N.B. Connecting pipes should be made polyvinyl chloride or stainless steel. Iron pipers should not be used because they tend to rust and contaminate the water.

(viii) Quality Control Procedure: There should be a well equipped in house quality control laboratory to cater for physio-chemical and microbiological analysis of the taw and processed water. In the absence of this the services of a government approved public analyst can be engaged. A copy of the letter of agreement between the two parties to this effect should be made available to reflect that regular analysis of the product would be carried out. All Laboratory reports must be well documented (ix) Packaging Materials: Ensure that packaging materials are made from food grade materials. The printing should be made, under hygienic conditions.

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